THE ULTIMATE HEAT ENGINE
THE NESTED PISTON HEAT ENGINE,
DANIEL R MEININGER
PATENT PENDING # 61680667
Problem: Current combustion engines and industrial turbine engines are dismally inefficient. Usually less than 20% of work energy is extracted from the ignited fuel/air mixture before it is exhausted into the atmosphere or before the steam in a steam powered turbine is re-condensed. Even a 10% across the board increase in engine efficiency would substantially lower the worlds demand for fuel.
Solution: THE NESTED PISTON CONCEPT
THE SOLUTION TO DISMAL ENGINE EFFICIENCY
THE NESTED PISTON ENGINE,
THE NESTED RADIAL PISTON ENGINE
THE NESTED PISTON TURBINE
Introducing the first and latest answer in world defining technology from Daniel R Meininger. Introducing the Nested Piston Engine, radial and turbine engine concept.
I the inventor, Daniel R Meininger submit to the United States patent office this potentially reversible engine concept introducing nested pistons. This is not a designed engine which will require research and development by team engineers, computers and maybe scientists for all the literally endless variations that this concept introduces.
This inventor predicts a possible minimum of 50% increase in efficiency of even the simplest variation of the nested piston engine concept. In the nested piston engine bigger is better given the possible increase in efficiency in each nested piston, size and complexity can afford.
The basic idea or concept is that after performing work on one piston and then exhausted into the atmosphere or condenser the working fluid is instead exhausted into a successive piston where further work can be extracted and so on.
Nested piston engines possible design configurations, including valving and crankshaft design in all of the configurations suggested in this provisional application become complicated quickly. Until some computational fluid dynamics research can be performed this inventor offers no designs only that the nested piston concept and idea belongs to the inventor and originator Daniel R. Meininger of Caldwell, Idaho.
The total energy transferred from the working fluid to the engine per stroke per nested unit is the instantaneous energy transfer ie the power, integrated over the time of the power strokes
E=Total Energy transferred from working fluid to one cylinder unit
dE/dt=instantaneous power transfer from fluid to motor
t=time of power stroke, total sum
S signifying mathematical integration
The efficiency is the energy transferred to the motor as work, which is the maximum enthalapy of the working fluid minus the enthalapy exhausted into the atmosphere divided by the maximum energy available which is the starting enthalapy minus the enthalapy of the working fluid at atmospheric conditions.
hexh=enthalapy of exhaust
hatm=enthalapy at atmospheric conditions
Now consider an existing single cylinder which is only 20% efficient which makes it relatively safe to assume that the force throughout the power stroke is relatively constant since it was the highest enthalapy of the fluid did that the work on the piston for it to do more than 20% the force would have to drop off significantly.. And drops to atmospheric when the exhaust valve opens, but if that didn't happen but was instead allowed to expand and do further work on subsequent pistons the enthalapy of the working fluid then remain above atmospheric and not exhausted until it is only 20% to 40% above atmospheric, if not less. If true the nested piston concept can improve engine efficiency more than 300%. Even if only one primary (nested) piston was as efficient as a single piston is, would still give 0.2x0.8 or a 16% increase in efficiency assuming that both the nested and the primary pistons extract 20% of the available enthalapy.
If you had a engine that when cranked in reverse without fuel or ignition ie work is added to the engine by cranking the engine's shaft that resulted in increased enthalapy, ie the internal energy of the working fluid (combusted air fuel mixture or steam) to the same or nearly the same enthalapy of the unused working fluid ie before performing work on the turbine or piston if running in the forward direction, you would have a reversible and therefore the highest thermodynamically efficient engine possible.
Thought experimentation itself shows that if one piston compressed atmospheric air into another piston and it into another and so on, eventually the air would be compressed into the working heat and pressure limits of the engine's materials. In other words the same enthalapy as the engine can use to perform nearly the same amount of work performed on it by cranking its shaft. Nested pistons engines appear to be far more reversible and thus far more efficient than the existing single tiered combustion and turbine engines. Even if both tiers of pistons in a 2 tier engine extracted merely 15% efficiency per piston would be a 50% increase over a single tiered piston.