HOW TO GET THE MOST MPG AND KWH PER FUEL UNIT
IN HEAT ENGINES, IE COMBUSTION ENGINES AND STEAM TURBINES
THE HOLY GRAIL IN ENGINE EFFICIENCY
WHAT THERMODYNAMIC REVERSIBLITY IS/MEANS:
A COMPLETELY REVERSIBLE THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS IS ONE THAT DOES NOT INCREASE DISORDER IN ANY AMOUNT MEANING THAT NO HEAT NOR WORK ENERGY IS WASTED DURING THE PROCESS AND THEREFORE HAS THE SAME AMOUNT OF ENERGY WHEN COMPLETED TO REVERSE THE PROCESS.
HOWEVER IT IS EASIER TO GIVE EXAMPLES THAT ARE NOT REVERSIBLE SUCH AS WATER SQUIRTING FROM A NOZZLE, SINCE IT IS NOW IMPOSSIBLE TO PUT THE WATER BACK INTO THE NOZZLE WITH THE SAME AMOUNT OF ENERGY IT TOOK TO SPRAY THE WATER OUT OF THE NOZZLE IS THEREFORE AN IRREVERSIBLE THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS.
MOST THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES ARE IRREVERSIBLE. HOWEVER THE MORE REVERSIBLE A PROCESS IS IE THE CLOSER TO REVERSIBILITY THE LESS ENERGY THAT IS WASTED DURING THAT PROCESS.
THE PROBLEM WITH CURRENT COMBUSTION (AUTOMOTIVE) ENGINES.
IS THAT THEY ARE NOT ANYWHERE NEAR REVERSIBLE. MOST OF THE HEAT ENERGY FROM THE FUEL IS EXHAUSTED THROUGH THE EXHAUST VALVE AND WASTED WHICH IS COMPLETELY IRREVERSIBLE. NO MORE THAN 20% OF THE AVAILABLE HEAT ENERGY DOES ACTUAL WORK IN CURRENT PISTON ENGINE TECHNOLOGY, MOST IS WASTED THROUGH THE EXHAUST AND SOME HEATING THE COOLANT
THE PROBLEM WITH CURRENT STEAM TURBINES
IS THAT STEAM IS THROTTLED (SQUIRTED THROUGH A NOZZLE SIMILAR TO THE HOSE EXAMPLE ABOVE) AT TURBINE BLADES CAUSING THEM TO SPIN, HOWEVER HARNESSING NO MORE THAN 40% OF THE AVAILABLE HEAT ENERGY. AS YOU CAN SEE NEITHER MODERN STEAM TURBINES NOR CURRENT INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES UTILIZE PRINCIPLES OF REVERSIBILITY.
INTRODUCING THE ULTIMATE IN REVERSIBILITY
THE NESTED PISTON ENGINE AND STEAM TURBINE.
HOW CONSIDER A GAS SLOWLY EXPANDING DOING WORK ON A PISTON BUT INSTEAD OF BEING EXHAUSTED THROUGH THE EXHAUST VALVE IS INSTEAD “EXHAUSTED” INTO A SUBSEQUENT PISTON TO DO MORE WORK AND MAYBE ONE OR MORE ADDITIONAL PISTONS TO CONTINUE TO EXPAND DOING (REVERSIBLE) WORK ON EACH PISTON BEFORE BEING EXHAUSTED OR CONDENSED WITH FAR LESS ENERGY (HEAT AND VELOCITY) THAN CURRENT ENGINES TECHNOLOGY EXHAUST HAS.
HOW CONSIDER TURNING THE SHAFT IN AN ENGINE DESCRIBED ABOVE IN THE REVERSE DIRECTION. THE LAST PISTON IN THE FORWARD DIRECTION NOW BEING THE FIRST PISTON IN THE REVERSE DIRECTION, THAT WOULD COMPRESS AIR THEN INTO THE SECONDARY PISTON WHICH WOULD COMPRESS IT EVEN FURTHER, UNTIL FINALLY THE AIR IS COMPRESSED TO NEARLY THAT OF THE FUEL OR STEAM AS IN THE FORWARD DIRECTION.
NOW IMAGINE ATTEMPTING TO DO THE SAME THING WITH CURRENT NESTED PISTON ENGINES AND STEAM TURBINES. NEITHER HAS THE CAPABILITY TO COMPRESS AIR WHEN OPERATED IN THE REVERSE DIRECTION AND IT IS BECAUSE NEITHER UTILIZES REVERSIBLE PROCESSES IN THE FORWARD DIRECTION.
NOTHING ELSE MATTERS WHEN IT COMES TO ENGINES BUT EFFICIENCY. THE MORE EFFICIENT AN ENGINE IS THE MORE POWERFUL IT IS PER UNIT VOLUME AND WEIGHT, MEANING THAT MORE EFFICIENT ENGINES ARE SMALLER WITH THE SAME POWER REQUIREMENTS (OUTPUT).
A MORE EFFICIENT ENGINE CAN BE MADE TO BE JUST AS POWERFUL AS ANY ENGINE THAT CURRENTLY EXISTS AND FOR ANY PURPOSE THAT WILL WEIGH LESS AND USE POTENTIALLY 1/2 THE FUEL ,1/2 THE COST AND OF COURSE 1/2 THE EMISSIONS AND 1/2 THE NUCLEAR WASTE, OR LESS !
1/2 THE CURRENT ENGINE SIZE AND FUEL REQUIREMENTS IN THE WORLD
NOTHING HAS TO BE SACRIFICED IN ENGINE EFFICIENCY EXCEPT SIMPLICITY OF THE ENGINE ITSELF, EVEN THE SIMPLEST NESTED PISTON ENGINE IS GOING TO BE MORE COMPLEX THAN ANY EXISTING ENGINE USED FOR SIMILAR PURPOSES. THEREFORE MAY NOT BE FEASIBLE FOR SMALLER ENGINES SUCH AS LAWNMOWER ENGINES.
BUT FROM RIDING MOWERS, TO MOTORCYCLES, CARS, TRUCKS, 1000 MW NUCLEAR, COAL, GAS, ETC POWERED FUEL PLANTS NESTED PISTONS OFFER THE ONLY APPROACH TO NEARING 100% EFFICIENCIES OR AT LEAST DOUBLING IN SMALLER ENGINES. THE BIGGER THE ENGINE SUCH AS STEAM TURBINES WILL BE MORE EFFICIENT THAN SMALLER ENGINES FOR A MOTORCYCLE OR CAR.
Experiment to explain optimization (simulated)
Say that a cylinder with a spark plug but no valves with a piston pushing a spring has a little fuel inside and then ignited by the spark plug. What would happen is the gas would expand from the heat of the fuel, expending energy on the spring causing the gas to cool, upon which the stored energy in the spring pushes against the cylinder heating the gas causing the piston to oscillate back in forth in the cylinder until the heat energy is dissipated. By continuing the experiment with smaller and smaller amounts of fuel one could determine the smallest amount of fuel necessary to begin oscillation. At that point the piston is nearly reversible and more fuel could be used coupled with a larger spring, including and making it longer and faster with a stiffer spring and/or more fuel. (needless to say do not try this at home as to much fuel could result in severe personal injury or death)
The above procedure is called “optimization” and similar procedures can be used to adapt nested piston engines to maximum efficiency in any situation.
More complex power generation facilities would require design optimization and operation control optimization to account for peak and off-peak demands of power generation.
Increasing large scale power production efficiencies to above 95% goes hand in hand with emerging rechargeable car technologies such as fuel cells. Current recharging a hybrid or electric car gaines